Bankrupt California utility Pacific Gas & Electric has come under fire on many fronts for the scope and execution of its self-imposed blackouts final month. The blackouts will proceed as the corporate pursues a decade-long grid-hardening project.
Electric utilities bear the solemn mission of preserving the lights on, however PG&E’s intentional shutoffs depart prospects to fend for themselves. That divergence from customary working process poses a query for the embattled utility: How will it maintain its hundreds of thousands of shoppers who lose entry to power when the danger of beginning a wildfire will get too excessive?
The October fires and shutoffs impressed a flurry of commentary on how microgrids and distributed energy may save the day by localizing power manufacturing and permitting communities to function independently of the fire-threatened grid. Though smart in concept, microgrids should navigate a thicket of regulatory and logistical boundaries earlier than they’ll function an efficient software throughout California blackouts.
Greentech Media dug into what motion, if any, PG&E has taken to construct native grid resilience that softens the blow of its power shutoff technique. Not a lot has occurred but, however the utility is doing greater than the informal observer may understand.
PG&E doesn’t function any community-scale microgrids, although it’s engaged on one in Humboldt County. But it just lately constructed two “resilience zones” that present momentary backup power in fire-prone Napa County cities, and it plans to scale this idea to 40 different communities.
Microgrids stay caught between risk and execution. The applied sciences that power them are mature and already at work in quite a few privately positioned initiatives, however few utilities have truly constructed community-based grid controls. Other utilities have taken that initiative, nevertheless, and their early efforts may function fashions for PG&E because it grapples with the brand new period of standard shutoffs.
Solutions are coming
PG&E has addressed the wildfire disaster with a mix of short-term and long-term actions. The power shutoffs deal with the quick danger that grid gear will begin one other lethal fireplace. The utility additionally launched a widespread wire-inspection effort and added networked reclosers to assist isolate outages on the grid, permitting extra focused shutoffs.
As far as efforts to maintain houses and companies up and working throughout a public security power shutoff (PSPS), PG&E has had one huge thought: the resilience zone.
“The resilience zone is designed to be quickly isolated from the broader electric grid when a PSPS is initiated and to receive power from temporary mobile generation connected to a new pre-installed interconnection hub,” the utility acknowledged in an April update on what it deemed an “innovative concept.”
PG&E has accomplished two resilience zones, within the Napa County cities of Calistoga and Angwin; each operated through the earlier October shutoff. In Calistoga, the zone stored the downtown enterprise district powered up, whereas the one in Angwin energized a fireplace station, a gasoline station, a medical facility and a pupil housing block.
Those two are pilot initiatives. The Angwin website examined a smaller group system, whereas Calistoga coated a bigger footprint with extra substantial energy wants. Going ahead, the utility will choose areas for resilience zones by learning historic climate patterns, speaking with communities to establish their wants, and on the lookout for possible websites which might be notably distant or prone to endure longer outages, spokesperson Paul Doherty mentioned in an electronic mail final week.
“PG&E intends to develop 40 resilience zones/temporary microgrids using the selection criteria stated above over the next three years to help reduce PSPS impacts,” Doherty mentioned.
These initiatives are a part of the final price case filings PG&E submits each three years. Grid wonks could also be to know that the wires upgrades and new gear put in for a resilience zone rely as capital investments and subsequently earn a regulated price of return. The gas prices and labor to function the resilience zones rely as an expense, which doesn’t generate revenue for PG&E.
As for everlasting multibuilding microgrids, PG&E kicked off its first try in January, Doherty mentioned. The firm is working with native stakeholders to construct a microgrid in Arcata, Humboldt County to again up 18 prospects together with the native airport and Coast Guard station. The program received grant funding from the California Energy Commission and can function solar technology and EV charging backed up by a 2-megawatt/8-megawatt-hour battery.
The worth of “temporary microgrids”
When individuals consider microgrids, they sometimes consult with everlasting gear that permits an area space to supply, retailer and management its personal electrical energy.
But PG&E’s resilience zones provide native management on a brief foundation. They depend on the utility to mobilize and ship turbines and gas within the occasion of a shutoff. That creates operational danger, including to the utility’s to-do listing in an already aggravating time.
Indeed, the rollout of the Angwin resilience zone through the shutoff proved “somewhat problematic,” in line with a report by county governments, citing the native fireplace chief.
“It appears that PG&E initially directed power to Pacific Union College, which has its own co-gen plant and therefore did not need the power,” the report states. “Napa County understands that it took over an hour for PG&E to correct the error and supply power to Angwin’s fire station and the rest of the resilience zone.”
Actual wildfires, the danger of which might immediate the shutoff within the first place, may interrupt the cargo of turbines and their fuels into fire-prone territory.
But, Doherty mentioned, the impermanent method permits PG&E to supply backup power to a bigger swath of its 70,000-square-mile territory.
“Stationary generation resources would result in less flexibility, as the ability to move such resources around the system would be highly unfeasible, and they may not be appropriately sized for all locations,” he mentioned. “Furthermore, temporary generation resources can be brought in as needed, and with advanced warning typically seen with these types of wind events, PG&E can stage these generation resources where and when it is required.”
For the identical worth of some microgrids, PG&E can develop many extra “temporary microgrids,” he added.
Moving past diesel turbines
PG&E’s cell generator idea differs from the brand new wave of high-tech microgrids popping up across the nation.
Indeed, utilities have been utilizing transportable diesel turbines to reply to emergencies for many years, mentioned Mark Feasel, who leads the microgrids enterprise at Schneider Electric. It’s “tried and true” technology for when excessive climate knocks out power strains.
“It should be part of a stack of potential solutions…deployed,” he mentioned. “But there’s no elegance about it; there’s no leveraging new technologies.”
Elsewhere, new applied sciences are serving to different corporations overcome the appreciable upfront expense microgrids impose for the difficult-to-measure worth of backup power.
The falling price of solar panels and lithium-ion batteries implies that microgrids can generate power every single day, in a method that will not be economical with a diesel backup generator. Revenue from common power manufacturing or battery operations should purchase down among the price of the backup power. Sophisticated cloud computing additionally replaces among the edge computing that drove up prices previously, Feasel famous.
Companies like Schneider Electric now provide microgrids as a service, which provides a buyer backup power with out having to purchase the gear outright. The native authorities in Montgomery County, Maryland used this method to back up its public safety campus — and increase clear energy within the course of.
“The technology…and the business models exist in a non-regulated environment to achieve these things today,” Feasel mentioned.
Private residents or companies are free to speculate their very own cash in house solar, batteries and turbines. Low-income residents in fire-risk zones can entry $100 million in state grants for that goal. And native governments and companies can set up gear behind their meters, too.
“We don’t have time for five-year pilots — we just need to do projects,” mentioned Mike Murray, founder and COO of microgrid controls firm Ageto Energy.
Communitywide microgrids implicate PG&E’s wires, although, and thus must navigate utility paperwork and the regulatory course of. The regulatory document on this subject is nascent in comparison with renewables or storage on their very own. The California Public Utilities Commission solely launched a formal microgrids proceeding on September 19; opening feedback had been due October 21.
“It’s really hard for innovators to do business in California,” mentioned 38 North Solutions chair Katherine Hamilton, who advocates for corporations and coalitions engaged on grid resilience. “The rules are so complex, you basically have to be in CPUC all the time to understand all the nuances.”
She mentioned she hopes the brand new course of, prompted by a law passed last year to assist the commercialization of microgrids, will make clear among the alternatives.
One problem for regulators to type out is how a lot ratepayer cash utilities ought to use for native microgrids. Regulators may see such funding as a price shift from prospects as a complete to those that reside in fire-prone areas.
Another topic to deal with is the strain between carbon-emitting diesel turbines as a climate adaptation technique and California’s legislative mandate to scrub up the grid.
“We have to be careful we don’t position microgrids as a panacea,” mentioned Jake Levine, a clear energy coverage knowledgeable at regulation agency Covington & Burling in Los Angeles. “We also have to keep driving forward on wildfire-mitigation efforts, refocusing utility incentives toward safety, and continuing to prioritize investments in zero-carbon electricity so as to address the core issue, which is a changing climate.”
Microgrid classes from different utilities
Elsewhere within the realm of regulated utilities, a number of of PG&E’s friends are proactively constructing high-tech microgrids to counteract unpredictable blackouts.
For overcoming difficult circumstances, it’s laborious to beat Duke Energy’s effort to power up a communications tower in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Maintaining a grid connection to the remoted outpost grew to become so tough that the North Carolina utility tried one thing fully completely different: It airlifted a long-duration zinc-air battery onto the mountaintop and hooked it as much as a solar array again in 2017. Now the location operates independently of the broader grid.
That Mount Sterling system is tiny — 10 kilowatts of solar capability with a 95-kilowatt-hour battery. But it may function a mannequin for the quite a few state and nationwide parks inside PG&E’s service territory. Lacking microgrids of their very own, a number of of those parks needed to shut down service through the October power minimize.
Duke Energy now’s constructing a solar and storage microgrid to maintain the lights on within the 500-person mountain city of Hot Springs, North Carolina. When not wanted for native backup, the 4-megawatt battery will ship grid companies for the majority power system. Last month, Duke utilized that technique — constructing native resilience the place the gear may also serve broader grid wants — to suggest battery backup at a county emergency command center in South Carolina.
Farther north, Eversource New Hampshire requested regulators for permission to construct a 1.7-megawatt/7.1-megawatt-hour battery to protect the 1,700-person town of Westmoreland from frequent storm-related outages. Instead of constructing a redundant line that will nonetheless be susceptible to falling bushes, this utility needed to offer the city its personal localized power supply.
Also up north, Vermont’s Green Mountain Power used a community of hundreds of batteries in prospects’ houses to keep 1,100 houses powered up throughout a statewide outage final month.
These examples and others present that regulated utilities are discovering methods to deal with the considerations PG&E articulated concerning the expense of resilient infrastructure and the problem of designing it to maintain a protracted outage. The utilities sometimes obtain this by utilizing the system for different companies through the overwhelming majority of the time when no blackout is in impact. That takes the strain off the backup use case alone to justify the return on funding, assuaging considerations about serving to the local people and never the broader inhabitants.
Notably, these different utilities selected to take this method for outages brought on by the vagaries of climate. PG&E intends to trigger blackouts earlier than the vagaries of climate flip harmful. That direct causal position may create extra of a social expectation that PG&E proactively construct native resilience the place it takes away grid power.
Some assistance is coming. The query now’s how quickly these 40 initiatives arrive — and whether or not the “temporary microgrid” method is as much as the daunting activity of dealing with an unsure grid.